Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract
Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits
Maryem Ben Salem, Hanen Affes, Kamilia Ksouda, Raouia Dhouibi, Zouheir Sahnoun, Serria Hammami, Khaled Mounir Zeghal. (2015)
Artichoke Leaf Extract (ALE) contained bioactive and flavonoid compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids and luteolin glucosides. As it is known, cynarin is a major dicaffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid was the main mono caffeoylquinic acid. These compounds have shown several biological activities. In various pharmacological test systems, ALE has been reported to show antioxidative, anti-HIV integrase, liver-protective, bile-expelling, anti-microbial and lipid-lowering effects.
Many studies demonstrated the hepatoprotective action of ALE, which was related to its active compounds and supported the use of artichoke as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent. The compounds of ALE such as cynarin might prevent the development of arthersclerotic plaques. The choleretic effects of ALE was similar to those of the reference compound dehydrocholic acid.
Results showed that ALE revealed a significant increase in parameters of anti-inflammatory indicating that serumNF-κB, TNF-α, Cox-2, CD 40 and HGF levels.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver.
It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients.
Human studies show that ALE has not been associated with significant side effects in studies so far, but full safety testing has not been completed. They indicate that ALE should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. Safety in young children or in people with severe liver or kidney disease has also not been established.
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